Dyslexia: Symptoms, Types and Causes

Dyslexia is one of the main axes of academic learning difficulties, as dyslexia is the main cause of academic failure, as it affects the student’s self-image and leads him to many patterns of inconsistent behavior, anxiety and lack of motivation, which is reflected Negatively on the student’s academic level. Language ability is centered on a specific point in the human brain’s left hemisphere, and language problems result from injuries in different parts of the brain. And such cases are known as Avazia, which is a partial or total defect or loss of the ability to express through speech, writing, pointing, or understanding the audible language. 

Dyslexia is a specific linguistic-based disorder characterized by difficulties in interpreting symbols, and abnormal linguistic processes usually accompany this disorder. And the difficulty in deciphering the symbols is the lack or impairment of the ability to interpret symbols and recognize vocabulary and a deficit in language fluency and writing, which is not the result of a deficit Sensory, rather, it is an evolutionary difficulty reading, and because it has a linguistic origin, it is characterized by difficulty in phonological treatment, such as the difficulty of sequencing and arranging sounds in the word and coding and short-term memory.

Types of Dyslexia:

1-Major dyslexia

It is the most common type of dyslexia, and it results from a malfunction in a specific area of ​​the brain. This condition does not diminish from dyslexia over time.

2-Secondary dyslexia

This type of dyslexia usually arises due to problems during the growth and development of the fetus’s brain in the womb. Still, the child often recovers from secondary dyslexia as he gets older.

3-Trauma dyslexia

This type of dyslexia may arise from an accident or injury to the language-processing area of ​​the brain and is a rare type.

Dyslexia Symptoms:

Symptoms of some common types of dyslexia usually begin to appear on the sufferers in childhood. These symptoms include the sufferer’s encountering difficulties in various aspects such as the child’s delay in reaching some important growth milestones compared to his peers, such as crawling, walking, speech.

Difficulties in speaking, such as pronouncing words incorrectly, stuttering, slow or reading difficulties, may appear clearly when the child learns some language skills at school, such as memorizing letters, grammar, writing construction, and reading texts.

Difficulties with writing, such as writing letters or numbers backward and forgetting some new words soon after learning them.

Other problems and difficulties include problems with neuromuscular coordination, difficulty distinguishing directions, difficulty concentrating, irrational linking thoughts, depression, and low levels of self-confidence. Dyslexia may also trigger the emergence of some autoimmune diseases as a child gets older.

Difficulty noticing similarities and differences in letters and words, inability to read the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word, and spending an unusually long time completing tasks that involve reading or writing.

Difficulty copying from a blackboard or book, difficulty playing organized games, reading words and letters backward, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Causes of Dyslexia:

Physiological factors:

A child with dyslexia has a different brain structure than a normal child, which leads to ineffective connections between the left and right sides of the brain. And this is often due to genetic factors. The auditory region in these people’s brains differs from its counterpart in other children, and the language area in the brain of people with dyslexia or reading disability in the left hemisphere of the brain is smaller and less in the number of cells.

Psychological factors:

Psychological factors have a large role in the emergence of dyslexia, such as a disorder of auditory perception and visual perception, as reading is a complex process in which auditory perception interferes with how letters are pronounced with visual perception, meaning how to write them.

Language Disorders:

The child’s outcome and vocabulary affect his learning and interpretation of the printed readable material, and children who have distorted sounds are often unable to read properly.

Memory disturbance:

Memory disorders are divided into auditory memory disorders and visual memory disorders, and the presence of difficulty in sequential retrieval of visual stimuli in children with dyslexia and this failure in retrieval is explained by the inefficiency of selective attention processes and the use of strategies for memorization, remembering and recall are less effective and efficient compared to children. Ordinary.

Linguistic factors:

Characteristics of spoken language, writing system, and teaching reading and writing methods may be contributing factors to the emergence of dyslexia in children.